The toxin inhibits the impulses of the nerves, briefly paralyzing the muscles that trigger wrinkles while offering the skin a cleaner, more attractive appearance. Studies have also indicated that Botox is successful in alleviating stress attacks, heavy sweating and neck and eye muscle spasms. The gram-negative anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum is the carrier of botulinum neurotoxin. Visit Jim Brantner Cosmetic & Reconstructive Surgery.
There are eight serologically distinct neurotoxins of botulinum, called A, B, C1, C2, D, E, F and G. Seven of them became paralysed. Forms A, B, E and, occasionally, F and G contribute to human botulism.
In mouse units the dosage of botulinum toxin is released. One unit is equivalent to the sum that administered intraperitoneally would destroy 50 per cent of a population of 18- to 22-g Swiss Webster mice. The human lethal dose (LD) for BOTOX (a distilled neurotoxin complex of botulinum type A) is measured at around 3000 units. BOTOX treatments of fewer than 100 units are typically used for aesthetic reasons and for certain uses of less than 300-600 units, thereby providing for a wide safety margin. Recognizing that doses of different formulations of botulinum toxin (BOTOX, Dysport, Myobloc) are not equivalent is important; different doses are used to achieve similar clinical results.
BOTOX is a type A form of sterile lyophilized botulinum toxin. It is derived from a Hall strain culture of C botulinum and distilled to a crystalline complex comprising toxin and other proteins by a sequence of acid precipitations. In December 1989 the FDA approved BOTOX as an experimental drug to treat strabism, hemifacial spasms and blepharospasm. BOTOX is administered in vials containing 100 parts.
The first neurotoxin batch developed by Shantz in November 1979 (designated batch 79-11) established the initial formulation of BOTOX and was used until December 1997. It was replaced by a new batch called BCB 2024 for the neurotoxin complex. In terms of weight, the current bulk batch is 5-6 times more effective. Just 4.8 ng of neurotoxin is available in a 100-unit vial, contrasted with 25 ng of 79-11. The latest BOTOX is equal with the old in terms of therapeutic success and health and a unit dose of new BOTOX produces an identical reaction to the same unit dose of old BOTOX. Hopefully, the current BOTOX’s decreased protein load leads to lower immunogenicity and a lower incidence of neutralizing antibody production.
Dysport is another Type A botulinum toxin formulation available in Europe and in a few other countries. It is prepared using techniques for column-based purification, and circulated in 500-unit vials that can be kept at room temperature. Both BOTOX and Dysport are Class A treatments for botulinum toxin but are quite different from each other. BOTOX is about four times more effective per unit and Dysport doses are often around four times the BOTOX doses used to achieve a comparable therapeutic result. Variations in these toxins may have to do with differences in bacterium type, preparation, diffusion, and checking for potency.